The annual census of the swan population on a particular stretch of the River Thames, Swan Upping has changed from a mostly ceremonial event to an important element of wildlife conservation
A flotilla of traditional Thames rowing skiffs, manned by Swan Uppers in scarlet rowing shirts and headed by The Queen’s Swan Marker, wearing a hat with a white swan’s feather, row their way steadily up the Thames. ‘All up!’ they cry as a family of swans and cygnets is spotted, and the Swan Uppers carefully position their boats around the swans, lift them from the water and check their health. The Swan Marker’s iconic five-day journey upriver has been an annual ceremony for hundreds of years, and today it has two clear goals; conservation and education.
Swan Upping today
Swans are, of course, no longer eaten, but Swan Upping still takes place once a year on the River Thames. The Swan Uppers weigh and measure the cygnets and check them for any signs of injury, commonly caused by fishing hooks and line.
The young cygnets are ringed with individual identification numbers that denote their ownership if they belong to the Vintners or the Dyers livery companies; they cygnets’ ownership is determined by their parentage. However, all Crown birds are left unmarked. The Queen retains the right to claim ownership of any unmarked mute swan swimming in open waters, but this right is mainly exercised on certain stretches of the River Thames.
History and the law
The Crown has held the right to claim ownership of all unmarked mute swans swimming in open waters throughout the country from as far back as the twelfth century. Historically, valuable rights of ownership were subsequently granted by the monarch to many people and organisations as swans were a prized food, served at banquets and feasts. Today, of course, swans are no longer eaten and are a protected species.
Apart from the Crown, there are only three organisations that have retained their right of ownership of mute swans and maintained their unique swan marks. Originally, marks were made on the top of the swan’s beak, and were recorded within a swan roll made of velum. Current day ownership marks are made by way of a small numbered leg ring but all Crown birds are left unmarked. Abbotsbury Swannery was granted the right of ownership in the fourteenth century and two London livery companies, the Vintners and the Dyers, have held similar rights since the fifteenth century.
Many hundreds of years ago there were severe penalties for injuring or killing a swan. A criminal could face imprisonment for one year and a day for even stealing swan eggs. Today, the Crown’s right of ownership exists by Royal prerogative.
Notes for Taxidermists
The law relating to ownership of mute swans applies to dead as well as live birds and to any parts thereof. Permission may be granted via The Queen’s Swan Marker for a dead mute swan or mute swan parts to be used for educational purposes; however, under the terms of such a permission, it/they may not be sold for profit but an educational establishment or museum may be permitted to pay a taxidermist for their work. Furthermore, any appropriate documentation should be retained as evidence of the existence and terms of any permission. More information can be obtained from The Office of The Queen’s Swan Marker, at [email protected].
Conservation is very important to the swan population on the River Thames and their protection is vitally important to their continued survival. The increasing use of rivers for boating, fishing and other recreational activities severely inhibits the swans’ natural habitat. Steel and concrete, used to prevent the erosion of river banks, results in the disappearance of river weed and reed beds that historically have provided the natural habitat on which swans feed and nest.
Predation by creatures such as mink, which can destroy a family of young cygnets, has increased significantly in recent years, along with birds of prey, foxes and domestic dogs. Man has also had a devastating impact upon the mute swan population; swans are commonly being shot and killed and their nests and eggs destroyed. Continuing efforts are being made to educate people about the environment in which they live and the sanctity of the wildlife that surrounds them. Whenever possible, injured swans are rescued, rehabilitated and released back to the wild.
Swans are also at risk of injuries caused by discarded fishing tackle that can result in a slow and painful death. Although the majority of fishermen are careful, those who do not respect the river and its wildlife cause immense problems and suffering.
The Queen’s Swan Marker advises on the co-ordination of the removal of swans from rivers while rowing regattas take place, to avoid injuries being sustained by swans and young cygnets during the racing. He also works closely with swan rescue organisations based on the River Thames and co-ordinates the movement of swans when necessary for their protection or safety.
Education plays a significant part of Swan Upping in July each year. Many children from local primary schools visit the Swan Markers and Swan Uppers at several locations along the banks of the River Thames as they travel on their journey upstream to Abingdon.
The children have the opportunity to learn about the biology of swans, the habitat they need to survive, the river and the boats and equipment used by the Swan Uppers. The Royal connection with swans is always of great interest to the children who take part in a question and answer session hosted by the Swan Markers, during which they demonstrate the knowledge they have gained from studying Swan Upping in school before their visit. The children also have the opportunity to view cygnets at very close quarters which is always a highlight of their day.
The Queen’s Swan Marker works closely with the River & Rowing Museum educational department based at Henley on Thames. The joint development of a Swan Upping box for the Reading Museum Loan Box Scheme facilitates learning in a wide range of disciplines around the subject of Swan Upping in the classroom.
Swan Upping 2022
Swan Upping 2022 commenced on Monday 18th July 2022 at Sunbury Lock Cut in Middlesex and finished on Friday 22nd July at Abingdon Bridge, Oxfordshire.
Announcing the schedule for Swan Upping 2022, The Queen’s Swan Marker, David Barber commented:
“We have received very positive reports during the 2022 breeding season with good numbers of cygnets hatching. However, the full impact of the outbreak of Avian Influenza will not be known until Swan Upping takes place.
During Swan Upping, we will once again be joined by a number of local schools whose children will meet the Royal Swan Uppers at several locations on their five-day journey up river. The children are usually able to see young cygnets from very close quarters and they have the opportunity to learn about the ecology of mute swans and how important it is to protect and preserve our wildlife and the environment in which it lives.
We hope this focus on education will help swans and other wildlife in the future.”
As well as the conservation work that Swan Upping encompasses, Swan Uppers continue to focus on the education of primary age children. Several primary schools therefore joined the Swan Uppers on the river where they learned about the biology of mute swans, the impact of pollution and the Royal connection to swans.
Local schools seeking further information about Swan Upping should contact the Swan Marker’s Office on 01628 523030 or email [email protected].
The observation points and times were as follows, (please note all timings are approximate):
Monday 18th July 2022
Sunbury 09.00 - Departure point
Shepperton Lock 10.15
Penton Hook Lock 12.30
Romney Lock 17.30
Tuesday 19th July 2022
Eton Bridge 08.30 - Departure point
Boveney Lock 09.15
Boulters Lock 12.30
Cookham Bridge 13.30
Marlow Lock 17.30
Wednesday 20th July 2022
Marlow Bridge 09.00 - Departure point
Hurley Lock 10.30
Hambleden Lock 12.00
Henley Town 13.15
Marsh Lock 15.30
Shiplake Lock 17.00
Sonning Bridge 18.00
Thursday 21st July 2022
Sonning-on-Thames 09.00 - Departure point
Caversham Lock 10.15
Mapledurham Lock 12.30
Goring Lock 17.00
Friday 22nd July 2022
Moulsford 09.00 - Departure point
Benson Lock 10.00
Clifton Hampden Bridge 13.00
Culham Lock 16.15
Abingdon Bridge 17.00